10Jan 2023

Meta-analyses summarize data from head-to-head trials to evaluate pairs of treatments that have been directly compared.[1] However, in certain circumstances, multiple therapies are of interest, and no data is available on their direct comparison. In such cases, indirect treatment comparison (ITC) is performed for synthesizing evidence surrounding treatments of interest.[2] ITC assumes that the studies […]

02Jan 2023

Improvements in healthcare digitalization and accelerated regulatory approvals of novel interventions have boosted the possibilities for gathering real-world data (RWD) and using the resultant real-world evidence (RWE) to support the generalizability, efficacy, and safety of interventions and medical devices, assisting healthcare decision-makers and policymakers.[1-5] RWE helps establish clinical guidelines, perform risk assessment for medication safety, […]

28Dec 2022

When seeking answers to clinical questions about efficacy or other aspects of a proposed intervention, health professionals often look for reliable evidence. Systematic literature reviews (SLRs) serve this purpose, by virtue of their ability to generate high-quality, verifiable, and trustworthy evidence in a systematic, transparent, and impartial manner.(1) In the new evidence pyramid, systematic reviews […]

24Nov 2022

Literature reviews play a vital role in fulfilling the primary goal of any evidence-based research by aiding in decision-making with transparent and impacting results.[1] With advances in all medical fields and with increased access to medical literature, different methodologies have been conceptualized for performing literature reviews, leading to the advent of different types of literature […]

03Nov 2022
How to report a systematic review? PRISMA statement guidelines

Healthcare decisions for patients and public health policies should be supported by the best available research evidence. To ensure the hierarchy of the evidence, an evidence pyramid was conceptualized, with in-vitro studies and animal studies forming the bottom of the pyramid, expert opinions, case series, case reports, and observational studies forming the middle layer, and […]

25Aug 2022

The World Health Organization Health (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being; and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”[1] Health is influenced by medical and non-medical determinants which contribute to health inequities; the non-medical determinants of health are also referred to as the social determinants of health […]

11Aug 2022

Both electronic health records (EHRs) and patient registries store and use patient-related clinical information. However, they are conceptualized for different purposes. Both are a significant source of real-world evidence (RWE) as they gather a considerable amount of clinical information collected in the real-world setting. An EHR is an electronic record of health data generated during […]

25Jul 2022

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the mainstay of clinical research; it is estimated that about 18,000 RCTs are published each year. However, traditional RCTs usually take a long time to complete, are expensive, and the results are challenging to generalize to the real-world since they are derived under ideal conditions with strict inclusion and exclusion […]

21Jul 2022

Evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) continues to be the standard reference point for treatment efficacy across the world. However, RCTs enrol patients based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and hence RCT evidence is often not generalizable and inadequate for contributing to the day-to-day clinical practice decisions. Consequently, researchers are more interested in using […]